Erika C.  Crouch, MD, PhD

Erika C. Crouch, MD, PhD

Carol B. and Jerome T. Loeb Professor of Medical Education
Professor, Pathology & Immunology
Vice Chair for Education
Gateway Histology and Pathology Thread Leader
Gateway Module 2 Phase 1 Co-leader


  • Anatomic & Molecular Pathology

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  • PhD: University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (1978)
  • MD: University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (1979)
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Biochemistry: University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (1979)
  • Resident in Anatomic Pathology, Department of Pathology: University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (1982)
  • Parker B. Francis Fellow in Pulmonary Pathology, Department of Pathology: University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (1983)

Board Certifications

  • Anatomic Pathology, American Board of Pathology with recertification


  • Gateway Inclusion Distinguished Service Teaching Award: 2022 and 2023
  • WUSM Second Century Award: 2016
  • Preclinical Professor of the Year Award: 2011, 2014, 2018, 2019.
  • Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education (awarded by faculty): 2002.
  • Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) – elected faculty member: 2002
  • Distinguished Faculty Award from WU Alumni Association (awarded by alumni): 2001.
  • Preclinical Teacher of the Year Award (awarded by graduating class): 1999, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2009-2011, 2013, 2016, 2018.
  • Preclinical Course Leader of the Year Award: 1998-2000, 2002, 2005, 2007-2010, 2012, 2016.
  • Distinguished Teaching Service Award (awarded by students at the end of 2nd year): 1992-1997, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2015, 2017, 2021.
  • Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Lambda Upsilon, Phi Kappa Phi.

Clinical Interests

  • Breast Pathology
  • Pulmonary Pathology

Research Interests

Our past research focused on the structure and function of collagenous carbohydrate-binding proteins known as collectins. We identified and subsequently characterized the structure, biosynthesis, tissue localization, genomic regulation, and functions of Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) – a collectin that plays important roles in the innate pulmonary host defense against a wide variety of important bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Most recently, the laboratory employed site-directed mutagenesis and crystallographic analysis to examine mechanisms of viral pattern recognition, including interactions with the hemagglutinin of influenza A. This lead to the creation of mutants with enhanced anti-IAV activity in animal models.

Service to the University

2021 – Histology and Pathology Thread Leader, Gateway Curriculum
2020 – Phase 1 Operations Committee, Gateway Curriculum
2020 – Phase 1 Module 2 Co-Leader (Defense and Response to Injury), Gateway Curriculum
2019 – WUSM Academy of Educators – Awards and Small Grants Awards Committee
2018 – 2020WUSM Gateway Curriculum Design and Build Teams
2016 – 2017Educational Support Sub-Committee for Teaching Support Taskforce (Executive Faculty Subcommittee)
2016 – WUSM Second Century Award Selection Committee (Appointed by Dean)
2010 – 2020Founding Director of Anatomic and Molecular Core Labs (CAP-CLIA certified)
2009 – 2010President of WUSM Chapter of AOA
2005 – Loeb Teaching Fellowship Selection Committee (Appointed by Dean)
2004 – 2020Chair, Goldstein Leadership in Education Committee (Appointed by Dean)
2001 – 2003Learning and Teaching Center Committee, WUSM
2000 – 2006Information Technology in Medical Student Education Committee, WUSM
1999 – 2000Executive Faculty Committee on Information Technology, WUSM
1984 – 2012Coordinator and Lecturer, Pulmonary Fellows Pathology Conference
1998 – 2005WUSM Committee on Medical Education (CME)
1997 – 2021WUSM Curriculum Evaluation Committee II (CEC II)
1997 – 2021WUSM Committee on Academic and Professional Evaluation of Students (CAPES)

DBBS Graduate Program Affiliation

  • Biochemistry
  • Developmental, Regenerative and Stem Cell Biology
  • Molecular Cell Biology

Selected Publications

PubMed Search

Wu K, Zhang Y, Austin SR, Yin H, Byers D, Crouch EC, and Holtzman MJ. Lung remodeling regions in long-term COVID-19 feature basal epithelial cell reprogramming. Am J Pathol 2023 Mar 2; PMID: 36868468
White M, Nikolaidis N, McCormack, Crouch EC, and Hartshorn K. Viral evasion of innate immune defense: the case of resistance of pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus to human mannose-binding proteins. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2021 Dec 8; 12:774711. PMID: 34956139
Wu K, Kamimoto K, Zhang Y, Yang K, Keeler SP, Gerovac BJ, Agapov EV, Austin SP, Yantis J, Gissy K, Byer DE, Alexander-Brett J, Hoffmann CM, Wallace M, Hughes ME, Crouch EC, Morris SA, and Holtzman MJ. Basal-epithelial stem cells cross an alarmin checkpoint for post-viral lung disease, Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2021 Oct 1; 131(19):e149336. PMID: 34343135
Favier AL, Reynard O, Gout E, van Eijk M, Haagsman H, Crouch E, Volchkov V, Peyrefitte C, Theilens NM. Involvement of Surfactant Protein D in Ebola Virus Infections Enhancement via Glycoprotein Interaction. Viruses. 2018 Dec 26;11(1). pii: E15. doi: 10.3390/v11010015. PMID: 30587835. Abstract
Gish SR, Maier EJ, Haynes BC, Santiago-Tirado FH, Srikanta DL, Ma CZ, Li LX, Williams M, Crouch EC, Khader SA, Brent MR, Doering TL. Computational Analysis Reveals a Key Regulator of Cryptococcal Virulence and Determinant of Host Response. MBio. 2016 Apr 19;7(2):e00313-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00313-16. PMID: 27094327 Abstract
Reinhardt A, Wehle M, Geissner A, Crouch EC, Kang Y, Yang Y, Anish C, Santer M, Seeberger PH. Structure binding relationship of human surfactant protein D and various lipopolysaccharide inner core structures. J Struct Biol. 2016 Sep;195(3):387-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2016.06.019. Epub 2016 Jun 25. PMID: 27350640. Abstract
White MR, Tripathi S, Verma A, Kingma P, Takahashi K, Jensenius J, Thiel S, Wang G, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Collectins, H-ficolin and LL-37 reduce influence viral replication in human monocytes and modulate virus-induced cytokine production. Innate Immun. Innate Immun. 2017 Jan;23(1):77-88. PMID: 27856789. Abstract
Lu Q, Yokoyama CC, Williams JW, Baldridge MT, Jin X, DesRochers B, Bricker T, Wilen CB, Bagaitkar J, Loginicheva E, Sergushichev A, Kreamalmeyer D, Keller BC, Zhao Y, Kambal A, Green DR, Martinez J, Dinauer MC, Holtzman MJ, Crouch EC, Beatty W, Boon AC, Zhang H, Randolph GJ, Artyomov MN, Virgin HW. Homeostatic Control of Innate Lung Inflammation by Vici Syndrome Gene Epg5 and Additional Autophagy Genes Promotes Influenze Pathogenesis. Cell Host Microbe. 2016 Jan 13 Abstract
Barrow AD, Palarasah Y, Bugatti M, Holehouse AS, Byers DE, Holtzman MJ, Vermi W, Skjedt K, Crouch E, Colonna M. OSCAR Is a Receptor for Surfactant Protein D That Activates TNF-α Release From Human CCR2+ Inflammatory Monocytes. J Immunol 2015 Abstract
Nikolaidis NM, White MR, Allen K, Tripathi S, Qi L, McDonald B, Taubenberger J, Seaton BA, McCormack FX, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Mutations flanking the carbohydrate binding site of surfactant protein D confer antiviral activity for pandemic influenza A viruses. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol, 2014 Abstract
Tripathi S, Tecle T, Verma A, Crouch E, White M, Hartshorn KL. The human cathelicidin LL-37 inhibits influenza A viruses through a mechanism distinct from that of Surfactant Protein D or definsins. J Gen Virol 94(Pt 1):40-49, 2013 Abstract
Perino J, Thielens NM, Crouch E, Spehner D, Crance JM, Favier AL. Protective effect of Surfactant Protein D in pulmonary vaccinia virus infection: implication of A27 viral protein. Viruses 5:928-953, 2013 Abstract
Goh BC, Rynkiewicz MJ, Cafarella TR, White MR, Hartshorn KL, Allen K, Crouch EC, Calin O, Seeberger PH, Schulten K, Seaton BA. Molecular mechanisms of inhibition of influenza by Surfactant Protein D revealed by large-scale molecular dynamics simulation. Biochemistry 52(47):8527-8538, 2013 Abstract
Doss M, Ruchala P, Tecle T, Gantz D, Verma A, Hartshorn A, Crouch EC, Luong H, Micewicz ED, Lehrer RI, Hartshorn KL. Hapivirins and Diprovirins: Novel theta-defensin analogs with potent activity against Influenza A Virus.. J Immunol 188(6):2759-2768, 2012 Abstract
van Eijk M, Rynkiewicz MJ, White MR, Hartshorn KL, Zou X, Schulten K, Luo D, Crouch EC, Cafarella TR, Head JF, Haagsman HP, Seaton BA. A Unique Sugar-binding Site Mediates the Distinct Anti-influenza Activity of Pig Surfactant Protein D. J Biol Chem 287:26666-26677, 2012Abstract
Stolley JM, Gong D, Farley K, Zhao P, Cooley J, Crouch EC, Benarafa C, Remold-O’Donnell E.Increased Surfactant Protein D fails to improve bacterial clearance and inflammation in serpinB1-/- mice.. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 47(6):792-799, 2012 Abstract
Qi L, Kash JC, Dugan VG, Jagger BW, Lau YF, Sheng ZM, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL, Taubenberger JK. The ability of pandemic influenza virus hemagglutinins to induce lower respiratory pathology is associated with decreased Surfactant Protein D binding. Virology 412(2):426-434, 2011 Abstract
Crouch E, Nikolaidis N, McCormack F, McDonald B, Allen K, Rynkiewicz M, Cafarella T, White M, Lewnard K, Leymarie N, Zaia J, Seaton B, Hartshorn K. Mutagenesis of SP-D informed by evolution and xray crystallography enhances defenses against influenza A Virus in vivo. J Biol Chem 286:40681-40692, 2011 Abstract
Hartshorn KL, White MR, Tecle T, Sorensen G, Holmskov U, Crouch ECViral aggregating and opsonizing activity in collectin trimers. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 298(1):L79-L88, 2010Abstract
Lin KW, Jen KY, Suarez CJ, Crouch EC, Perkins DL, Finn PW. Surfactant Protein D-mediated decrease of allergen-induced inflammation is dependent upon CTLA4. J Immunol 184(11):6343-6349, 2010 Abstract
Crouch EC, Hirche TO, Boxio R, Wartelle J, Benabid R, McDonald B, Heinecke J, Matalon S, Belaaouaj A. Myeloperoxidase-dependent inactivation of Surfactant Protein D in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem 285(22):16757-16770, 2010 Abstract
Hartshorn KL, White MR, Kuroki Y, Sorensen G, Holmskov U, Crouch ECIncreasing antiviral activity of Surfactant Protein D trimers by introducing residues from bovine serum collectins. Scan J Immunol 72(1):22-30, 2010 Abstract
Seaton BA, Crouch EC, McCormack FX, Head JF, Hartshorn KL, Mendelsohn R. Structural determinants of pattern recognition by lung collectins. Innate Immun 16(3):143-150, 2010 Abstract
Hartshorn KL, White MR, Rynkiewicz M, Sorensen G, Holmskov U, Head J, Crouch EC. Monoclonal antibody-assisted structure-function analysis of the carbohydrate recognition domain of Surfactant Protein D. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 299(3):L384-L392, 2010 Abstract
Job ER, Deng YM, Tate MD, Bottazzi B, Crouch EC, Dean MM, Mantovani A, Brooks AG, Reading PC. Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A viruses are resistant to the antiviral activities of innate immune proteins of the collectin and pentraxin superfamilies. J Immunol 185(7):4284-4291, 2010 Abstract
White MR, Boland P, Tecle T, Gantz D, Sorenson G, Tornoe I, Holmskov U, McDonald B, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Enhancement of antiviral activity of collectin trimers through cross-linking and mutagenesis of the carbohydrate recognition domain. J Innate Immun 2(3):267-279, 2009 Abstract
Matalon S, Shestra K, Kirk M, Waldheuser S, McDonald B, Smith K, Gao Z, Belaaouaj A, Crouch ECModification of Surfactant Protein D by reactive oxygen nitrogen intermediates is accompanied by loss of aggregating activity, in vitro and in vivo. FASEB J 23(5):1415-1430, 2009 Abstract
Crouch E, Hartshorn K, Horlacher T, McDonald B, Smith K, Cafarella T, Seaton B, Seeberger PH, Head J. Recognition of mannosylated ligands and influenza A virus by human Surfactant Protein D: contributions of an extended site and residue 343. Biochemistry 48(15):3335-3345, 2009 Abstract
Doss M, White MR, Tecle T, Gantz D, Crouch EC, Jung G, Ruchala P, Waring AJ, Lehrer RI, Hartshorn KL. Interactions of alpha-, beta-, and theta-definsins with Influenza A virus and Surfactant Protein D. J Immunol 182:7878-7887, 2009 Abstract
Guth AM, Janssen WJ, Bosio CM, Crouch EC, Henson PM, Dow SW. Lung environment determines unique phenotype of alveolar macrophages. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 296:L936-L946, 2009 Abstract
Singh M, Madan T, Waters P, Sonar S, Singh SK, Kamran MF, Bernal AL, Sarma PU, Singh VK, Crouch EC, Kishore U. Therapeutic effects of recombinant forms of full-length and truncated human Surfactant Protein D in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Mol Immunol 46(11-12):2363-2369, 2009 Abstract
Sorensen GL, Hoegh SV, Leth-Larsen R, Thomsen TH, Floridon C, Smith K, Kejling K, Tornoe I, Crouch EC, Holmskov U. Multimeric and trimeric subunit SP-D are interconvertible structures with distinct ligand interaction. Mol Immunol 46(15):3060-3069, 2009 Abstract
Carlson TK, Torrelles JB, Smith K, Horlacher T, Castelli R, Seeberger PH, Crouch EC, Schlesinger LS. Critical role of amino acid position 343 of Surfactant Protein-D in the selective binding of glycolipids from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Glycobiology 19(12):1473-1484, 2009 Abstract
Wang H, Head J, Kosma P, Brade H, Muller-Loennies S, Sheikh S, McDonald B, Smith K, Cafarella T, Seaton B, Crouch ERecognition of heptoses and the inner core of bacterial lipopolysaccharides by Surfactant Protein D. Biochemistry 47(2):710-720, 2008 Abstract
Sahly H, Kesari Y, Crouch E, Sharon N, Ofek I. Recognition of bacterial surface polysaccharides by lectins of the innate immune system and its contribution to defense against infection: the case of pulmonary pathogens. Infec Immun 76(4):1322-1332, 2008 Abstract
Cooley J, McDonald B, Accurso F, Crouch E, Remold-O’Donnell E. Patterns of neutrophil serine protease-dependent cleavage of Surfactant Protein-D in inflammatory lung disease. J Leukoc Biol 83(4):946-955, 2008 Abstract
Reading PC, Bozza S, Gilbertson B, Tate M, Moretti S, Crouch EC, Brooks, AG, Brown LE, Bottazzi B, Ramani L, Mantovani A. Antiviral activity of the long chain pentraxin PTX3 against influenza viruses. J Immunol 180(5):3391-3398, 2008 Abstract
Tecle T, White MR, Sorensen GL, Gantz D, Kacak N, Holmskov U, Smith K, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Critical role of crosslinking of trimeric lectin domains of Surfactant Protein D in antiviral activity against influenza A virus. Biochem J 412(2):323-329, 2008 Abstract
Wang L, Brauner JW, Mao G, Crouch E, Seaton B, Head J, Smith K, Flach CR, Mendelsohn R.Interaction of recombinant Surfactant Protein D with lipopolysaccharide: Conformation and orientation of bound protein by IRRAS and simulations. Biochem 47(31):8103-8113, 2008 Abstract
White M, Kingma P, Tecle T, Kacak N, Linders B, Heuser J, Crouch E, Hartshorn K. Multimerization of Surfactant Protein D, but not its collagen domain, Is required for antiviral and opsonic activities related to influenza virus. J Immunol 181(11):7936-7943, 2008 Abstract
Guo CJ, Atochina-Vasserman EN, Abramova E, Foley JP, Zaman A, Crouch E, Beers MF, Savani RC, Gow AJ. S-nitrosylation of Surfactant Protein D controls inflammatory function. PLoS Biol 6(11):2414-2423, 2008 Abstract
Nie X, Nishitani C, Yamazoe M, Ariki S, Takahashi M, Shimizu T, Mitsuzawa H, Sawada K, Smith K, Crouch E, Nagae H, Takahashi H, Kuroki Y. Pulmonary Surfactant Protein D binds MD-2 through the carbohydrate recognition domain. Biochemistry 47:12878-12885, 2008 Abstract
Hartshorn KL, Webby R, White MR, Tecle T, Pan C, Boucher S, Moreland RJ, Crouch EC, Scheule RK. Role of viral hemagglutinin glycosylation in anti-influenza activities of recombinant Surfactant Protein D. Respir Res 9:65, 2008 Abstract
Crouch E, McDonald B, Smith K, Roberts M, Mealy T, Seaton B, Head J. Critical role of Arg/Lys343 in the species-dependent recognition of phosphatidylinositol by pulmonary Surfactant Protein D. Biochemistry 46:5160-5169, 2007 Abstract
Hartshorn KL, White MR, Tecle T, Tornoe I, Sorensen GL, Crouch EC, Holmskov U. Reduced influenza viral neutralizing activity of natural human trimers of Surfactant Protein D. Respir Res 8:9 (5 Feb), 2007 Abstract
Tecle T, White M, Crouch E, Hartshorn K. Human neutrophil defensins increase neutrophil uptake of influenza A virus and bacteria and modify virus induced respiratory burst responses. J Immunol 178(12):8046-8052, 2007 Abstract
White MR, Tecle T, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Impact of neutrophils on antiviral activity of human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293(5):L1293-1299, 2007Abstract
Tecle T, White MR, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Inhibition of influenza viral neuraminidase activity by collectins. Arch Virol 152(9):1731-1742, 2007 Abstract
Crouch EC, McDonald B, Smith K, Cafarella T, Seaton B, Head J. Contributions of phenylalanine 335 to ligand recognition by human Surfactant Protein D: Ring interactions with SP-D ligands. J Biol Chem 281(26):18008-18014, 2006 Abstract
Haczku A, Cao Y, Vass G, Kierstein S, Nath P, Atochina-Vasserman EN, Scanlon ST, Li L, Griswold DE,Chung KF, Pulain FR, Hawgood S, Beers MF, Crouch ECIL-4 and IL-13 form a negative feedback circuit with SP-D in the allergic airway response. J Immunol 176(6):3557-3565, 2006 Abstract
Hartshorn KL, White MR, Tecle T, Holmskov U, Crouch ECInnate defense against Influenza A virus: Activity of human neutrophil defensins and interactions of defensins with Surfactant Protein D. J Immunol 176(11):6962-6972, 2006 Abstract
Crouch ECSurfactant Protein D (SP-D). In Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine. Chapter: Surfactant. G. Laurent and S. Shapiro, Ed, Elsevier Limited, Oxford, UK, Vol 4:152-158, 2006
Ohya M, Nishitani C, Sano H, Yamada C, Hiroki M, Shimizu T, Saito T, Smith K, Crouch E, Kuroki Y. Human pulmonary Surfactant Protein D binds the extracellular domains of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 through the carbohydrate recognition domain by a mechanism different from its binding to phosphatidylinositol and lipopolysaccharide.. Biochemistry 45:8657-8664, 2006 Abstract
Crouch EC, Smith K, McDonald B, Briner D, Linders B, Holmskov U, Hartshorn K.. Species differences in the carbohydrate binding preferences of Surfactant Protein D: Contributions of aspartate-325 and multimeric assembly to ligand recognition.. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 35(1):84-94, 2006 Abstract
Ferguson JS, Martin JL, Azad AK, McCarthy, TR, Kang PB, Voelker DR, Crouch EC, Schlesinger LS. Surfactant Protein D increases fusion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-containing phagosomes with lysosomes in human macrophages.. Infect Immun 74(12):7005-7009, 2006 Abstract
Crouch EC, Whitsett JA.. Diverse Roles of Lung Collectins in Pulmonary Innate Immunity. AB Ezekowitz and JA Hoffmann Editors, Humana Press Inc., Rotowa, NJ. Innate Immunity. 205-229, 2002
Crouch E, Wright JR.. Surfactant Proteins A and D and Pulmonary Host Defense. Annu Rev Physiol 63:521-554, 2001 Abstract

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