Ann M.  Gronowski, PhD

Ann M. Gronowski, PhD

Oree M. Carroll and Lillian B. Ladenson Professor in Clinical Chemistry, Pathology & Immunology and Obstetrics & Gynecology
Division Co-Chief, Laboratory and Genomic Medicine
CLIA Medical Director, BJH Pathology Services & Memorial Hospitals
Co-Director, Clinical Chemistry Fellowship


  • Laboratory & Genomic Medicine

Additional Titles

  • CLIA Medical Director, BJH Pathology Services & Memorial Hospitals
  • Medical Director, Special Chemistry and Serology/Immunology
  • Medical Co-Director, Clinical Chemistry
  • Section Head, Clinical Chemistry
  • Section Head, Transfusion Medicine
  • Co-Director, Clinical Chemistry Fellowship


  • B.S., University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (1985)
  • M.S., Iowa State University, Ames, IA (1988)
  • Ph.D., Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology: University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (1992)
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Endocrinology and Metabolism: Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (1995)
  • Postdoctoral Trainee in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (1995)
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Department of Pathology: Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (1998)

Board Certifications

  • Diplomate, American Board of Clinical Chemistry


  • Outstanding Contributions through Service to the Profession of Clinical Chemistry Award, AACC, 2010
  • Washington University Clinical Pathology Teaching Award, 2011
  • Mentorship Award, Society of Young Clinical Laboratorians, AACC, 2011
  • Distinguished Educator-Clinical Fellow Mentoring Award, Washington University School of Medicine, 2015
  • Outstanding Contributions through Education Award, AACC, 2016
  • Achievement Award, Pediatric Maternal Fetal Division, AACC, 2016
  • Award for Outstanding Contributions to Clinical Chemistry in a Selected Area of Research, AACC Academy, 2020
  • Washington University Clinical Pathology Teaching Award, 2020
  • Washington University, Department of Pathology, Outstanding Achievements in Leadership and Professionalism Award, 2022

Clinical Interests

  • Clinical Chemistry
  • Immunology/Serology
  • Endocrinology
  • Women’s Health
  • Pre-analytic effects on laboratory testing
  • Ethics in laboratory medicine

Research Interests

Our research focuses primarily on the laboratory diagnostics of endocrinology and reproductive physiology with a particular emphasis on maternal-fetal medicine. Our work has investigated the hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and its variant forms. In particular, we are interested in the beta core fragment of hCG (hCGβcf) which is the predominant form of hCG in urine after five weeks of pregnancy. We have shown that high concentrations of this variant can interfere with certain pregnancy tests and cause false negative results. We have also been studying how hCG concentrations increase with age.

Although hCG is best known for its production by the placenta, it is also produced in the pituitary gland in peri-and past-menopausal women. Our research has focused on ways to differentiate between pituitary and placental hCG. I am also active in the field of ethics in laboratory medicine. I have published several papers on ethics, professionalism, and error disclosure.

Selected Publications

Gronowski AM, Fantz CR, Parvin CA, Sokoll LJ, Wiley C, Wener MH, Grenache DG. Use of serum FSH to identify peri-menopausal women with pituitary hCG. Clin Chem 2008;54:652-656.
Gronowski AM, Cervinski MA, Stenman U-H, Woodworth A, Ashby L, Scott MG. False negative results in point-of-care qualitative hCG devices due to excess hCG beta core fragment. 2009;Clin Chem 55:1389-1394.
Gronowski AM, Powers M, Stenman U-H, Ashby LA, Scott M. False negative results from point-of-care qualitative devices due to excess hCG Beta Core fragment varies with device lot number. Clin Chem 2009;55:1885-1886.
Nerenz RD, Song H and Gronowski AM. A Screening Method to Evaluate Point-of-Care hCG Devices for Susceptibility to the Hook Effect by hCG βcf: Evaluation of Eleven Devices. Clin Chem 2014;60:667-674.
Nerenz RD, and Gronowski AM. Qualitative Point-of-Care hCG Testing: Can We Defuse This Ticking Time Bomb? OpinionClin Chem 2015:61:483-6.
Nerenz RD, Butch AW, Ashby L, Woldemariam GA, Yarbrough ML, Grenache DG and Gronowski AM. Estimating the hCGβcf during pregnancy. Clin Biochem. 2016;49:282-86.
Nerenz RD, Yarbrough ML, Stenman UH, Gronowski AM. Characterizing urinary hCGβcf patterns during pregnancy. Clin Biochem 2016;49:777-81.
Gronowski AM, McGill MR, Domen RE. Professionalism in residency training: A compilation of desirable behaviors and a case-based comparison between pathologists in training and practice. Academic Path 2016;3:1-6. Patel KK, Qavi J. Hock KG, Gronowski AM: Establishing Reference Intervals for hCG in postmenopausal women. Clin Biochem 2017;4:234-237.
Gronowski AM and Burnham C-AD. Creation of a Professional Development Program for Women in a Major U.S. Medical School Pathology Department. J Applied Lab Med 2018;3:498-506. This paper was selected for a JALM podcast.
Farnsworth CW, Webber DM, Krekeler JA, Budelier MM, Bartlett NL, Gronowski AM. Parameters for validating a hospital pneumatic tube system. Clin Chem 2019;65:694-702. This paper was selected for a CCJ podcast.
Franks CE, Krekeler A, Gronowski AM, Farnsworth CW. A comparison of four, three-axis-accelerometers for monitoring hospital pneumatic tube systems. JALM 2020;5:1345-50.
Farnsworth CW, Wallace MA, Liu A, Gronowski AM, Burnham C-AD, Yarbrough ML.  Evaluation of the risk of laboratory microbial contamination during routine testing in automated clinical chemistry and microbiology laboratories. Clin Chem 2020;66:1190-99.
Tang MS, Case JB, Franks CE, Chen RE, Anderson NW, Henders JP, Diamond MS,  Gronowski AM, Farnsworth CW. Association between SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and commercial serological assays. Clin Chem 2020;66:1538-47.
Powers Carson, JP and Gronowski AM. Letter to the Editor from Javorsky: “New cutoffs for the biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency after ACTH stimulation using specific cortisol assays” J Endocrine Soc 2021;5:1-2.
Suciu CG, Amurao M, Luechtefeld D, Marko A, Ashby L, and Gronowski AM. Evaluation of radioactivity in patient specimens received in the core laboratory at a National Cancer Institute (NCI) designated cancer center. Clin Chem 2021;67:1415-25. This paper was selected for a CCJ Journal Club. And a CLN Q&A.
 Azimi, V, Budelier M, Gronowski AM. Decreased renal function is associated with mild elevations of hCG in women >40 years of age. Clin Chem 2021;67:1567-9.

Dionne Brierton
BJCIH Room 4410