Research > Faculty Alphabetical > Herbert Virgin IV, MD, PhD
|Edward Mallinckrodt Professor and Head, Pathology and Immunology|
Director and Principal Investigator, Midwest Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research
Professor of Molecular Microbiology
1st Floor Room 1754, West Building
Office: (314) 362-9223
Lab: (314) 362-9224
Pub Med Search
|Herbert W. “Skip” Virgin, M.D., Ph.D.
Department of Pathology and Immunology
Department of Molecular Microbiology
Department of Medicine
Molecular Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis Program
We study issues at the interface between virology and immunology, working from the hypothesis that viruses manipulate the immune response using immunoevasive gene products as the immune response attempts to eradicate the virus. The resulting delicate balance determines the fate of both virus and host, and contributes to both acute and chronic disease. To understand the basis of human diseases of unknown etiology we have an active pathogen discovery program that has identified a number of novel viruses.
Three concepts drive our approach: (1) the simultaneous analysis of immune and viral mechanisms allows novel insights; (2) genetic tests in vivo are necessary to establish mechanisms; and (3) chronic virus infection has profound effects on the physiology of the host. Our experimental models involve infection of mice with a variety of DNA and RNA viruses including murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (ãHV68, MHV-68) and two viruses identified through our pathogen discovery efforts: a novel murine norovirus (MNV) and a novel orthomyxovirus (Quaranfil). Infection of mice with such viruses provides manipulable models for studying the role of viral and host genes in important disease processes.
Current projects include the: (1) cellular and molecular basis of herpesvirus latency and tumorigenesis; (2) mechanisms of interferon-ã (IFNã) and IFNáâ in control of actue and chronic infection; (3) role of autophagy in IFNã function and immunity; (4) role of viruses and autophagy proteins in intestinal immunity and barrier function in Crohn’s disease; (5) norovirus immunology, genetics, structure, and pathogenesis; and (6) pathogen discovery.
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1. Karst, S.M., Wobus, C. E., Lay, M., Davidson, J., and H. W. Virgin. STAT1-dependent innate immunity to a Norwalk-like virus. 2003. Science. Mar 7;299(5612):1575-8.
2. Wobus, C. E., S. M. Karst, L. Thackray, K.-O. Chang, S. V. Sosnovtsev, G. Belliot, A. Krug, J. M. Mackenzie, K. Y. Green, and H. W. Virgin. Replication of a Norovirus in cell culture reveals a tropism for dendritic cells and macrophages. 2004. PLOS Biology. E432. Epub Nov 30 2004.
3. Barton. E. S., D. W. White, J. S. Cathelyn, K. A. Brett-McClellan, M. Engle, M. S. Diamond, V. Miller, and H. W. Virgin. Herpesvirus latency confers symbiotic protection from bacterial infection. 2007. Nature. May 17;447(7142):326-9.
4. Cadwell, K., J. Y. Liu, S. L. Brown, H. Miyoshi, J. Loh, J. K. Lennerz, C. Kishi, W. Kc, J. A. Carrero, S. Hunt, C. D. Stone, E. M. Brunt, R. J. Xavier, B. P. Sleckman, E. Li, N. Mizushima, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, A unique role for autophagy and the autophagy gene Atg16L1 in murine and human intestinal Paneth cells. 2008. Nature. 456:259-263.
5. Cadwell, K., K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T.-C. Liu, A. C. Y. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin. Virus plus susceptibility gene interaction determines intestinal phenotypes of the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Atg16L1. 2010. Cell. In Press.
|2008 - Present||Editorial Board||Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology|
|2006 - Present||Editorial Board||Cell Host & Microbe|
|2005 - Present||Editorial Board||Virology|
|2004 - Present||Editorial Board||Autophagy|
|Service to the Department|
|Service to the University|
|2009 - Present||Director and Principal Investigator, Midwest Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research|
|2006 - Present||Research Affairs Committee|
|2006 - Present||Siteman Cancer Center Leadership Council, Washington University|
|2006 - Present||Faculty Practice Plan Clinical Practice Committee|
|2006 - Present||Medical Executive Committee, Barnes-Jewish Hospital|
|2006 - Present||Preclinical Chiefs Committee, Washington University School of Medicine|
|2003 - Present||Advisory Board Washington University/Pfizer Biomedical Program|
|1999 - Present||Immunology Program Steering Committee|
|Cadwell KK, Patel K, Maloney NS, Liu TC, Ng ACY, Storer CE, Head RD, Xavier R, Stappenbeck TS, Virgin HW. Virus plus susceptibility gene interaction determines intestinal phenotypes of the Crohns disease susceptibility gene Atg16L1. Cell In Press, 2010 Abstract|
|Virgin HW, Walker BD. Immunology and the elusive AIDS vaccine. Nature 464:224-231, 2010 Abstract|
|Virgin HW, Levine B. Autophagy Genes in Immunity. Nature Immunology 10: 461-70, 2009 Abstract|
|Virgin HW, Wherry EJ, Ahmed R. Redefning Chronic Viral Infection. Cell 138: 30-50, 2009 Abstract|
|Cadwell K, Liu JY, Brown SL, Miyoshi H, Loh J, Lennerz JK, Kishi C, Kc W, Carrero JA, Hunt SA, Stone CD, Brunt EM, Xavier RJ, Sleckman BP, Li E, Mizushima N, Stappenbeck TS, Virgin HW. A key role for autophagy and the autophagy gene Atg16L1 in murine and human intestinal Paneth cells. Nature 456:259-263, 2008 Abstract|
|Zhao Z, Fux B, Goodwin M, Dunay IR, Strong D, Miller BC, Cadwell K, Delgado-Vargas M, Ponpuak N, Green KG, Schmidt RE, Mizushima N, Deretic V, Sibley LD, Virgin HW. Autophagosome-independent essential function for the autophagy protein Atg5 in cellular immunity to intracellular pathogens. Cell Host and Microbe 4:458-69, 2008 Abstract|
|Chachu KA, LoBue AB, Strong DW, Baric RS, Virgin HW. Immune Mechanisms responsible for vaccination against and clearance of mucosal and lymphatic norovirus infection. PLoS Pathogen 4:e1000236, 2008 Abstract|
|Barton ES, White DW, Cathelyn JS, Brett-McClellan KA, Engle M, Diamond MS, Miller VL, Virgin HW. Herpesvirus latency confers symbiotic protection from bacterial infection. Nature 447:326-329, 2007 Abstract|
|Frias-Staheli N, Giannakopoulos NV, Kikkert M, Taylor SL, Bridgen A, Paragas J, Richt JA, Schmaljohn CS, Lenschow DJ, Snijder EJ, Garcia-Sastre A, Virgin, HW. Ovarian tumor domain-containing viral proteases evade ubiquitin- and ISG15-dependent innate immune responses. Cell Host and Microbe 2: 404-416, 2007 Abstract|
|Lenschow DJ, Lai C, Frias-Staheli N, Giannakopoulos NV, Lutz A, Wolff T, Osiak A, Levine B, Schmidt RE, Garcia-Sastre A, Leib DA, Pekosz A, Knobeloch KP, Horak I, Virgin HW. IFN-stimulated gene 15 functions as a critical antiviral molecule against influenza, herpes, and Sindbis viruses. PNAS 104:1371-1376, 2007 Abstract|
|Tarakanova V L, Leung-Pineda V, Hwang S, Yang CW, Matatall K, Basson M, Sun R, Piwnica-Worms H, Sleckman BP, Virgin HW. Herpesvirus kinase initiates DNA damage response by inducing phosphorylation of H2AX to foster viral replication.. Cell Host and Microbe 1:275-286, 2007 Abstract|
|Tarakanova VL, Leung-Pineda V, Hwang S, Yang CW, Matatall K, Basson M, Sun R, Piwnica-Worms HP, Sleckman BP, Virgin HW. Gamma-herpesvirus kinase actively initiates DNA damage response by inducing phosphorylation of H2AX to foster viral replication. Cell Host and Microbe 1:275-286, 2007 Abstract|
|Braaten DC, McClellan JS, Messaoudi I, Tibbetts SA, McClellan KB, Nikolich-Zugich J, Virgin HW. Effective control of chronic gamma-herpesvirus infection by unconventional MHC Class Ia-independent CD8 T cells. PLoS Pathogen 2:e37, 2006 Abstract|
|Wobus CE, Karst SM, Thackray LB, Chang KO, Sosnovtsev SV, Belliot G, Krug A, Mackenzie JM, Green KY, Virgin HW. Replication of Norovirus in cell culture reveals a tropism for dendritic cells and macrophages. PLoS Biol 2:e432, 2004 Abstract|
|Popkin DL, Watson MA, Karaskov E, Dunn GP, Bremner R, Virgin HW. Murine cytomegalovirus paralyzes macrophages by blocking IFNgamma-induced promoter assembly. PNAS 100:14309-14314, 2003 Abstract|
|Karst SM, Wobus CE, Lay M, Davidson J, Virgin HW. STAT1-Dependent Immunity to a Norwalk-Like Virus. Science 299:1575-1578, 2003 Abstract|
|Kapadia SB, Levine B, Speck SH, Virgin HW. Critical role of complement and viral evasion of complement in acute, persistent, and latent gamma-herpesvirus infection. Immunity 17:143-155, 2002 Abstract|
|Gangappa S, van Dyk LF, Jewett T, Speck SH, Virgin HW. Identification of the in vivo role of a viral bcl-2. J Exp Med 195:931-940, 2002 Abstract|
|Dal Canto AJ, Swanson PE, O'Guin AK, Speck SH, Virgin HW. Interferon-gamma action in the media of the great elastic arteries, a novel immunoprivileged site. J Clin Invest 107:15-22, 2001 Abstract|
|Leib DA, Machalek MA, Williams BR, Silverman RH, Virgin HW. Specific phenotypic restoration of an attenuated virus by knockout of a host resistance gene. PNAS 97:6097-6101, 2000 Abstract|
|Megan Baldridge, MD, PhD|
|Jason Norman, PhD|
|Steve Johnson, PhD|
|Seungmin Hwang, PhD|
|Donna MacDuff, PhD|
|Timothy Nice, PhD|
|Tiffany Reese, PhD|