Faculty > Faculty By Appointment > Erika Crouch, MD, PhD

Professor, Pathology and Immunology
Faculty, Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences
Course Leader, Sophomore Pathology Course
Room 3434, BJC-IH, 3rd Floor
Office: (314) 454-8462
Lab: (314) 454-7577
Pub Med Search


Our research has focused on the structure and function of collagenous carbohydrate binding proteins known as collectins. We have systematically characterized the structure, function, synthesis, assembly and secretion of Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) - a collectin that plays important roles in the innate pulmonary host defense against a wide variety of important bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. In particular, the laboratory has employed site-directed mutagenesis and crystallographic analysis to examine mechanisms of microbial pattern recognition, including interactions with the hemagglutinin of influenza A.

Editorial Responsibilities

2008 - 2012Associate EditorJournal of Innate Immunity
1998 - 2013Editorial BoardAmerican Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
1991 - 1992Associate EditorAmerican Journal of Physiology
1988 - 1992Editorial BoardHuman Pathology
Editorial ReviewAmerican Review of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Editorial ReviewJournal of Biological Chemistry
Editorial ReviewJournal of Clinical Investigation
Editorial ReviewJournal of Immunology

Service to the Department

2009 - PresentCLIA Laboratory Director, AMP Core Labs
2007 - PresentClinician, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine
1996 - PresentCourse Director, Sophomore Pathology Course

Service to the University

2015 - PresentLearning Management System, Steering Committee
2009 - 2010President of WUSM Chapter of AOA
2008 - 2009Vice President, WUSM Chapter of AOA
2008 - 2011Educational Technology Advisory Committee
2006 - 2007Educational Programs Committee, LCME Self Study
2006 - 2008Information Technology Focus Group, WUSM
2005 - 2011Selection Committee, WUSM Chapter of AOA
2005 - PresentLoeb Teaching Fellowship Selection Committee (Appointed by Dean)
2004 - PresentChair, Goldstein Education Committee (Appointed by Dean)
2004 - 2005Preclinical Infrastructure, Devices, and Related Software Subcommittee, WUSM
2004 - 2005Taskforce for Information Technology in Medical Student Education, WUSM
2001 - 2003Learning and Teaching Center Committee, WUSM
2000 - 2006Information Technology in Medical Student Education Committee, WUSM
1999 - 2000Executive Faculty Committee on Information Technology, WUSM
1999 - 2000Chair, Education Committee for Faculty Retreat
1999 - PresentCoordinator and Lecturer, Pulmonary Fellows Pathology Conference
1998 - 2004Medical Student Advisory Program
1998 - 2005Committee on Medical Education (CME), WUSM
1997 - PresentCurriculum Evaluation Committee II (CEC II), WUSM
1997 - 1998LCME Objectives Committee, WUSM
1997 - PresentCommittee on Academic and Professional Evaluation of Students (CAPES), WUSM
1986 - PresentFaculty and Internal Advisory Committee, Pulmonary Research Training Grant

DBBS Graduate Program Affiliation

Developmental Biology
Molecular and Cell Biology

Diagnostic Expertise

Pulmonary Pathology (particularly interstitial and occupational lung diseases)
Breast Pathology

Clinical Interest

Anatomic and Molecular Pathology - Breast Pathology
Anatomic and Molecular Pathology - Immunohistochemistry
Anatomic and Molecular Pathology - Pulmonary Pathology

Selected Publications

Ellis MJ, Suman VJ, Hoog J, Goncalves R, Sanati S, Creighton CJ, DeSchryver K, Crouch E, Brink A, Watson M, Luo J, Tao Y, Barnes M, Dowsett M, Budd GT, Winer E, Silverman P, Esserman L, Carey L, Ma CX, Unzeitig G, Pluard T, Whitworth P, Babiera G, Guenthe. Ki67 Proliferation Index as a Tool for Chemotherapy Decisions During and After Neoadjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment of Breast Cancer: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1031 Trial (Alliance).. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jan 3: JCO2016694406., 2017 Abstract

Lu Q, Yokoyama CC, Williams JQ, Baldridge MT, Jin X, DesRochers B, Bricker T, Wilen CB, Bagaitkar J, Loginicheva E, Sergushichev A, Kreamalmeyer D, Keller BC, Zhao Y, Kambal A, Green DR, Martinez J, Dinauer MC, Holtzman MJ, Crouch EC, Beatty W, Boon AC, Z. Homeostatic Control of Innate Lung Inflammation by Vici Syndrome Gene Epg5 and Additional Autophagy Genes Promotes Influenze Pathogenesis.. Cell Host Microbe Jan 13;19(1):102-113, 2016 Abstract

Gish SR, Maier EJ, Haynes BC, Santiago-Tirado FH, Srikanta DL, Ma CZ, Li LX, Williams M, Crouch EC, Khader SA, Brent MR, Doering TL.. Computational Analysis Reveals a Key Regulator of Cryptococcal Virulence and Determinant of Host Response.. MBio Apr 19;7(2):e00313-16, 2016 Abstract

Reinhardt A, Wehle M, Geissner A, Crouch EC, Kang Y, Yang Y, Anish C, Santer M, Seeberger PH.. Structure Binding Relationship of Human Surfactant Protein D and Various Lipopolysaccharide Inner Core Structures.. J Struct Biol. Sep;195(3):387-95., 2016 Abstract

White MR, Tripathi S, Verma A, Kingma P, Takahashi K, Jensenius J, Thiel S, Wang G, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL.. Collectins, H-ficolin and LL-37 Reduce Influence Viral Replication in Human Monocytes and Modulate Virus-Induced Cytokine Production.. Innate Immun. 2016 Nov 17. pii: 1753425916678470, 2016 Abstract

Barrow AD, Palarasah Y, Bugatti M, Holehouse AS, Byers DE, Holtzman MJ, Vermi W, Skjedt K, Crouch E, Colonna M.. OSCAR Is a Receptor for Surfactant Protein D That Activates TNF-a Release From Human CCR2+ Inflammatory Monocytes.. J Immunol 194(7):3317-3326, 2015 Abstract

Nikolaidis NM, White MR, Allen K, Tripathi S, Qi L, McDonald B, Taubenberger J, Seaton BA, McCormack FX, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Mutations flanking the carbohydrate binding site of surfactant protein D confer antiviral activity for pandemic influenza A viruses.. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol, 2014 Abstract

Tripathi S, Tecle T, Verma A, Crouch E, White M, Hartshorn KL. The human cathelicidin LL-37 inhibits influenza A viruses through a mechanism distinct from that of Surfactant Protein D or definsins. J Gen Virol 94(Pt 1):40-49, 2013 Abstract

Perino J, Thielens NM, Crouch E, Spehner D, Crance JM, Favier AL. Protective effect of Surfactant Protein D in pulmonary vaccinia virus infection: implication of A27 viral protein. Viruses 5:928-953, 2013 Abstract

Goh BC, Rynkiewicz MJ, Cafarella TR, White MR, Hartshorn KL, Allen K, Crouch EC, Calin O, Seeberger PH, Schulten K, Seaton BA. Molecular mechanisms of inhibition of influenza by Surfactant Protein D revealed by large-scale molecular dynamics simulation. Biochemistry 52(47):8527-8538, 2013 Abstract

Doss M, Ruchala P, Tecle T, Gantz D, Verma A, Hartshorn A, Crouch EC, Luong H, Micewicz ED, Lehrer RI, Hartshorn KL. Hapivirins and Diprovirins: Novel theta-defensin analogs with potent activity against Influenza A Virus.. J Immunol 188(6):2759-2768, 2012 Abstract

van Eijk M, Rynkiewicz MJ, White MR, Hartshorn KL, Zou X, Schulten K, Luo D, Crouch EC, Cafarella TR, Head JF, Haagsman HP, Seaton BA. A Unique Sugar-binding Site Mediates the Distinct Anti-influenza Activity of Pig Surfactant Protein D. J Biol Chem 287:26666-26677, 2012 Abstract

Stolley JM, Gong D, Farley K, Zhao P, Cooley J, Crouch EC, Benarafa C, Remold-O'Donnell E. Increased Surfactant Protein D fails to improve bacterial clearance and inflammation in serpinB1-/- mice.. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 47(6):792-799, 2012 Abstract

Qi L, Kash JC, Dugan VG, Jagger BW, Lau YF, Sheng ZM, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL, Taubenberger JK. The ability of pandemic influenza virus hemagglutinins to induce lower respiratory pathology is associated with decreased Surfactant Protein D binding. Virology 412(2):426-434, 2011 Abstract

Crouch E, Nikolaidis N, McCormack F, McDonald B, Allen K, Rynkiewicz M, Cafarella T, White M, Lewnard K, Leymarie N, Zaia J, Seaton B, Hartshorn K. Mutagenesis of SP-D informed by evolution and xray crystallography enhances defenses against influenza A Virus in vivo. J Biol Chem 286:40681-40692, 2011 Abstract

Hartshorn KL, White MR, Tecle T, Sorensen G, Holmskov U, Crouch EC. Viral aggregating and opsonizing activity in collectin trimers. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 298(1):L79-L88, 2010 Abstract

Lin KW, Jen KY, Suarez CJ, Crouch EC, Perkins DL, Finn PW. Surfactant Protein D-mediated decrease of allergen-induced inflammation is dependent upon CTLA4. J Immunol 184(11):6343-6349, 2010 Abstract

Crouch EC, Hirche TO, Boxio R, Wartelle J, Benabid R, McDonald B, Heinecke J, Matalon S, Belaaouaj A. Myeloperoxidase-dependent inactivation of Surfactant Protein D in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem 285(22):16757-16770, 2010 Abstract

Hartshorn KL, White MR, Kuroki Y, Sorensen G, Holmskov U, Crouch EC. Increasing antiviral activity of Surfactant Protein D trimers by introducing residues from bovine serum collectins. Scan J Immunol 72(1):22-30, 2010 Abstract

Seaton BA, Crouch EC, McCormack FX, Head JF, Hartshorn KL, Mendelsohn R. Structural determinants of pattern recognition by lung collectins. Innate Immun 16(3):143-150, 2010 Abstract

Hartshorn KL, White MR, Rynkiewicz M, Sorensen G, Holmskov U, Head J, Crouch EC. Monoclonal antibody-assisted structure-function analysis of the carbohydrate recognition domain of Surfactant Protein D. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 299(3):L384-L392, 2010 Abstract

Job ER, Deng YM, Tate MD, Bottazzi B, Crouch EC, Dean MM, Mantovani A, Brooks AG, Reading PC. Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A viruses are resistant to the antiviral activities of innate immune proteins of the collectin and pentraxin superfamilies. J Immunol 185(7):4284-4291, 2010 Abstract

White MR, Boland P, Tecle T, Gantz D, Sorenson G, Tornoe I, Holmskov U, McDonald B, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Enhancement of antiviral activity of collectin trimers through cross-linking and mutagenesis of the carbohydrate recognition domain. J Innate Immun 2(3):267-279, 2009 Abstract

Matalon S, Shestra K, Kirk M, Waldheuser S, McDonald B, Smith K, Gao Z, Belaaouaj A, Crouch EC. Modification of Surfactant Protein D by reactive oxygen nitrogen intermediates is accompanied by loss of aggregating activity, in vitro and in vivo. FASEB J 23(5):1415-1430, 2009 Abstract

Crouch E, Hartshorn K, Horlacher T, McDonald B, Smith K, Cafarella T, Seaton B, Seeberger PH, Head J. Recognition of mannosylated ligands and influenza A virus by human Surfactant Protein D: contributions of an extended site and residue 343. Biochemistry 48(15):3335-3345, 2009 Abstract

Doss M, White MR, Tecle T, Gantz D, Crouch EC, Jung G, Ruchala P, Waring AJ, Lehrer RI, Hartshorn KL. Interactions of alpha-, beta-, and theta-definsins with Influenza A virus and Surfactant Protein D. J Immunol 182:7878-7887, 2009 Abstract

Guth AM, Janssen WJ, Bosio CM, Crouch EC, Henson PM, Dow SW. Lung environment determines unique phenotype of alveolar macrophages. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 296:L936-L946, 2009 Abstract

Singh M, Madan T, Waters P, Sonar S, Singh SK, Kamran MF, Bernal AL, Sarma PU, Singh VK, Crouch EC, Kishore U. Therapeutic effects of recombinant forms of full-length and truncated human Surfactant Protein D in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Mol Immunol 46(11-12):2363-2369, 2009 Abstract

Sorensen GL, Hoegh SV, Leth-Larsen R, Thomsen TH, Floridon C, Smith K, Kejling K, Tornoe I, Crouch EC, Holmskov U. Multimeric and trimeric subunit SP-D are interconvertible structures with distinct ligand interaction. Mol Immunol 46(15):3060-3069, 2009 Abstract

Carlson TK, Torrelles JB, Smith K, Horlacher T, Castelli R, Seeberger PH, Crouch EC, Schlesinger LS. Critical role of amino acid position 343 of Surfactant Protein-D in the selective binding of glycolipids from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Glycobiology 19(12):1473-1484, 2009 Abstract

Wang H, Head J, Kosma P, Brade H, Muller-Loennies S, Sheikh S, McDonald B, Smith K, Cafarella T, Seaton B, Crouch E. Recognition of heptoses and the inner core of bacterial lipopolysaccharides by Surfactant Protein D. Biochemistry 47(2):710-720, 2008 Abstract

Sahly H, Kesari Y, Crouch E, Sharon N, Ofek I. Recognition of bacterial surface polysaccharides by lectins of the innate immune system and its contribution to defense against infection: the case of pulmonary pathogens. Infec Immun 76(4):1322-1332, 2008 Abstract

Cooley J, McDonald B, Accurso F, Crouch E, Remold-O'Donnell E. Patterns of neutrophil serine protease-dependent cleavage of Surfactant Protein-D in inflammatory lung disease. J Leukoc Biol 83(4):946-955, 2008 Abstract

Reading PC, Bozza S, Gilbertson B, Tate M, Moretti S, Crouch EC, Brooks, AG, Brown LE, Bottazzi B, Ramani L, Mantovani A. Antiviral activity of the long chain pentraxin PTX3 against influenza viruses. J Immunol 180(5):3391-3398, 2008 Abstract

Tecle T, White MR, Sorensen GL, Gantz D, Kacak N, Holmskov U, Smith K, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Critical role of crosslinking of trimeric lectin domains of Surfactant Protein D in antiviral activity against influenza A virus. Biochem J 412(2):323-329, 2008 Abstract

Wang L, Brauner JW, Mao G, Crouch E, Seaton B, Head J, Smith K, Flach CR, Mendelsohn R. Interaction of recombinant Surfactant Protein D with lipopolysaccharide: Conformation and orientation of bound protein by IRRAS and simulations. Biochem 47(31):8103-8113, 2008 Abstract

White M, Kingma P, Tecle T, Kacak N, Linders B, Heuser J, Crouch E, Hartshorn K. Multimerization of Surfactant Protein D, but not its collagen domain, Is required for antiviral and opsonic activities related to influenza virus. J Immunol 181(11):7936-7943, 2008 Abstract

Guo CJ, Atochina-Vasserman EN, Abramova E, Foley JP, Zaman A, Crouch E, Beers MF, Savani RC, Gow AJ. S-nitrosylation of Surfactant Protein D controls inflammatory function. PLoS Biol 6(11):2414-2423, 2008 Abstract

Nie X, Nishitani C, Yamazoe M, Ariki S, Takahashi M, Shimizu T, Mitsuzawa H, Sawada K, Smith K, Crouch E, Nagae H, Takahashi H, Kuroki Y. Pulmonary Surfactant Protein D binds MD-2 through the carbohydrate recognition domain. Biochemistry 47:12878-12885, 2008 Abstract

Hartshorn KL, Webby R, White MR, Tecle T, Pan C, Boucher S, Moreland RJ, Crouch EC, Scheule RK. Role of viral hemagglutinin glycosylation in anti-influenza activities of recombinant Surfactant Protein D. Respir Res 9:65, 2008 Abstract

Crouch E, McDonald B, Smith K, Roberts M, Mealy T, Seaton B, Head J. Critical role of Arg/Lys343 in the species-dependent recognition of phosphatidylinositol by pulmonary Surfactant Protein D. Biochemistry 46:5160-5169, 2007 Abstract

Hartshorn KL, White MR, Tecle T, Tornoe I, Sorensen GL, Crouch EC, Holmskov U. Reduced influenza viral neutralizing activity of natural human trimers of Surfactant Protein D. Respir Res 8:9 (5 Feb), 2007 Abstract

Tecle T, White M, Crouch E, Hartshorn K. Human neutrophil defensins increase neutrophil uptake of influenza A virus and bacteria and modify virus induced respiratory burst responses. J Immunol 178(12):8046-8052, 2007 Abstract

White MR, Tecle T, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Impact of neutrophils on antiviral activity of human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293(5):L1293-1299, 2007 Abstract

Tecle T, White MR, Crouch EC, Hartshorn KL. Inhibition of influenza viral neuraminidase activity by collectins. Arch Virol 152(9):1731-1742, 2007 Abstract

Crouch EC, McDonald B, Smith K, Cafarella T, Seaton B, Head J. Contributions of phenylalanine 335 to ligand recognition by human Surfactant Protein D: Ring interactions with SP-D ligands. J Biol Chem 281(26):18008-18014, 2006 Abstract

Haczku A, Cao Y, Vass G, Kierstein S, Nath P, Atochina-Vasserman EN, Scanlon ST, Li L, Griswold DE,Chung KF, Pulain FR, Hawgood S, Beers MF, Crouch EC. IL-4 and IL-13 form a negative feedback circuit with SP-D in the allergic airway response. J Immunol 176(6):3557-3565, 2006 Abstract

Hartshorn KL, White MR, Tecle T, Holmskov U, Crouch EC. Innate defense against Influenza A virus: Activity of human neutrophil defensins and interactions of defensins with Surfactant Protein D. J Immunol 176(11):6962-6972, 2006 Abstract

Crouch EC. Surfactant Protein D (SP-D). In Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine. Chapter: Surfactant. G. Laurent and S. Shapiro, Ed, Elsevier Limited, Oxford, UK, Vol 4:152-158, 2006

Ohya M, Nishitani C, Sano H, Yamada C, Hiroki M, Shimizu T, Saito T, Smith K, Crouch E, Kuroki Y. Human pulmonary Surfactant Protein D binds the extracellular domains of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 through the carbohydrate recognition domain by a mechanism different from its binding to phosphatidylinositol and lipopolysaccharide.. Biochemistry 45:8657-8664, 2006 Abstract

Crouch EC, Smith K, McDonald B, Briner D, Linders B, Holmskov U, Hartshorn K.. Species differences in the carbohydrate binding preferences of Surfactant Protein D: Contributions of aspartate-325 and multimeric assembly to ligand recognition.. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 35(1):84-94, 2006 Abstract

Ferguson JS, Martin JL, Azad AK, McCarthy, TR, Kang PB, Voelker DR, Crouch EC, Schlesinger LS. Surfactant Protein D increases fusion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-containing phagosomes with lysosomes in human macrophages.. Infect Immun 74(12):7005-7009, 2006 Abstract

Crouch EC, Whitsett JA.. Diverse Roles of Lung Collectins in Pulmonary Innate Immunity. AB Ezekowitz and JA Hoffmann Editors, Humana Press Inc., Rotowa, NJ. Innate Immunity. 205-229, 2002

Crouch E, Wright JR.. Surfactant Proteins A and D and Pulmonary Host Defense. Annu Rev Physiol 63:521-554, 2001 Abstract